Covid-19

COVID-19 Pneumonia: Severity & Supportive treatment

  • COVID-19 Pneumonia: Severity & Supportive treatment

Generally, Pneumonia is defined as the infection of lungs, which is caused by bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The pneumatic condition can make small air sacs into your lungs, known as alveoli, to fill with fluid.

Apart from the usual pneumatic condition, Pneumonia can also be caused by covid-19, which is considered a severe coronavirus illness.

How does the infection spread?

When covid-19 infected person’s respiratory droplets enter your upper respiratory tract, the virus multiplies and the infection starts and progresses into your lungs. The weak lungs and immune system increase the chances of having complications of Pneumonia. In covid-19 pneumatic condition, the alveoli and its surrounding tissues can get damaged.

You will be more prone to getting inflammation if you have a weak immune system. The inflamed lungs can lead to dead cells and tissues. All these factors impact the transfer of oxygen, leading to severe symptoms like dry coughing and breathlessness.

Still, the latest researches cannot determine all the complications caused by the Covid-19 and how the Covid-19 Pneumonia is different from other types of Pneumonia.

Most of the covid-19 cases involve mild to moderate symptoms, which needs basic medical attention. People with the pneumatic condition or similar symptoms must consult with their doctor for covid-19 test or treatment.

Symptoms of Covid-19 Pneumonia

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Cough
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of Breathe
  • Fatigue

There is a situation or some serious symptoms, which should not be ignored:

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Confusion
  • Rapid heartbeat
  • Constant feeling of pressure or pain in the chest
  • Trouble staying awake or difficulty waking

Who is more prone to catching a covid-19 infection?

  • Weaker immune system
  • Undergoing cancer treatment
  • HIV positive
  • Diabetes

How covid-19 is treated?

So far, there is no specific treatment introduced for covid-19 infection. A variety of drugs has been tested for the treatment of COVID-19. The treatment for COVID-19 is supportive only and given to support the immune system and maintain the oxygen level in the body.

Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia are also treated with oxygen therapy and severe cases require the support of a ventilator.

Long-term effects of COVID-19 infection

The severe damage due to COVID-19 pneumonia may lead to long-term bad effects.

A study reveals that more than 90 per cent cases who had COVID-19 Pneumonia, reported lung lesions when examined by CT scan.

Even after 2-3 months, patients reported mild breathing issues and difficulty doing heavy exercises.

Prevention & Care tips to avoid COVID-19 infections

  • Keep washing your hand until a highly trusted medicine or vaccine is developed
  • Eat healthy and vitamin C enriched diet
  • If you already are facing some medical condition, be strict to your medication and take good care of your health
  • Wear a triple-layered mask in public places and when you go outside of your home or workplace

Park Group of Hospitals requests you to follow all the directed guidelines by WHO and IMA. One of the best multispecialty hospitals in Gurgaon and Delhi, India, Park Hospital facilitates hi-tech facilities for all major health problems, transplants, and surgical procedures.

COVID-19 AND DIABETES MELLITUS

  • COVID-19 AND DIABETES MELLITUS An Institutional Experience: Park Hospital, Gurugram

An Institutional Experience: Park Hospital, Gurugram

Dr (Col) M K Dutta,

Endocrinologist & Internal Medicine (Senior Consultant)

The Covid-19 pandemic has changed the course of the world and exposed it, particularly the health care structure to such sheer and frustration.

It is not surprising to see a large number of diabetics, both type 1 and type 2, suffering from the disease and having much increased morbidity and mortality. Increased ICU admission by double, increased mortality in diabetes patients by 3 times and severe disease rates twice of normal population has been seen in the recent epidemic in China. Reports of ACE receptor upgradation requiring anti-hypertensive medication modification are being published. Having been at the forefront in the management of these cases, one finds certain factors aggravating this phenomenon.

  1. Lack of lifestyle modification i.e., improper diet, lack of adequate exercise, improper sleep, increased stress due to financial depravation, loss of jobs, lack of social communication.
  2. Failure to access healthcare due to presumed risk of infection, hospitals converted to Covid hospitals, lack of functioning diabetic and endocrinology OPDs
  3. Lack of information about diabetes monitoring treatment, check-up during this period
  4. No information on medication changes, insulin sick day guidelines, changing schedules of treatment during this period

It has been seen that patients are suffering from rising blood glucose levels due to isolation. Infection with Covid-19 significantly worsens the glycaemic status. There is lack of understanding among basic doctors caring for the disease. Very few endocrinologists are available on the ground in the care of diabetic patients, the job being left to young residents, physicians and nurses who find it an increasingly difficult job to control hyperglycaemia, fluids and electrolytes. The frequent use of steroids and stress of infection worsens the situation with added rise in metabolic control due to concurrent comorbidities and the use of inotropes.

We at Park Hospital Gurugram have treated many patients suffering from Covid-19 and found that a large number are diabetics who suffer from poor immunity leading to an increased risk of moderate to severe Covid-19 infection. There is a need to step up glycaemic monitoring with frequent blood glucose measurements and early appropriate use of insulin in basal bolus regimen to achieve glycaemic control. There have been cases of severe DKA who have been managed with IV fluids, electrolyte correction, insulin infusion and bicarbonate depending on the severity of acidosis which is also further complicated by lactic acidosis and uraemic acidosis. Factors like dehydration, fever, sepsis, use of multiple medications, inotropes and frequent steroids make the situations truly challenging.

We have preferred to discontinue Metformin in these serious situations though DPP-inhibitors and insulin find a place in diabetic management.

Also very important is the role of regular monitoring of blood glucose levels at home and maintenance of normal blood glucose with regular use of prescribed medications which include oral hypoglycemic agents, GLP1 analogues, insulin subcutaneous, insulin pump therapy and treatment of concurrent illnesses. The role of exercise which includes atleast 150 mins of aerobic exercise and 2 days of resistance training on a weekly basis cannot be over emphasized.

The role of maintaining a regular balanced diabetic diet which is high in protein and unsaturated fats and avoidance of high carbohydrate load and saturated fats is emphasized to maintain appropriate body weight and muscle.

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