Other Types of Cancers

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Other Types of Cancers

Head and Neck Cancer

Brain Tumour: To begin, we should define a brain tumour as a mass made up of abnormal cells that develop in the brain. Our skulls are hard and unyielding, any abnormal growth within the skull is cause for concern. Brain tumours could be cancerous or benign (not cancerous) in nature. However, if a benign tumour begins to grow inside the skull, it can create an increase in pressure inside the skull, which puts pressure on the brain, potentially causing brain damage and becoming life-threatening.

Oral Cancer: Oral cancer is a type of head and neck cancer that develops in the mouth or throat tissues. It is part of a larger category of malignancies known as head and neck cancers. The majority form in the squamous cells of your mouth, tongue, and lips. Oral cancer is usually found after it has spread to the lymph nodes in the neck. Early detection is critical for the survival of oral cancer.

Thoracic Cancer

Lung Cancer: Cancer that starts in the lungs, which is more common among smokers. Lung cancer is caused by several factors, including smoking, secondhand smoke, exposure to particular chemicals, and a family history of the disease. Coughing (frequently with blood), chest pain, wheezing, and weight loss are all symptoms. These symptoms frequently do not occur until the malignancy has progressed. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted medication therapy, and immunotherapy are some of the treatments available.

Esophagus Cancer: Esophageal cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the oesophagus, which is a long, hollow tube that connects your throat to your stomach. It aids in the movement of food for digestion. Esophageal cancer often originates in the cells that line the oesophagus. Symptoms include trouble swallowing (dysphagia), suspesious weight loss, chest discomfort( pressure or burning), increased indigestion , heartburn, coughing, and hoarseness. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with this cancer than women.

GIT Cancer

Liver : Liver cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the cells of your liver. It is a football-sized organ located in the upper right quadrant of your belly, beneath the diaphragm, and above the stomach. It can develop several types of cancer and Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common type of liver cancer that develops in the major type of liver cell (hepatocyte). Other kinds of liver cancer are significantly less prevalent, such as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma.

Pancreatic Cancer: Pancreases the organ that aids in the digestive system of the body and produces hormones that manage blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer commonly shows symptoms when it spreads to other organs. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy.

Gallbladder: Gallbladder Cancer is relatively uncommon. If caught early enough, it is curable by removing the gallbladder, a portion of the liver, and any related lymph nodes. It is usually discovered after symptoms like abdominal discomfort, jaundice, and vomiting have occurred, and it has progressed to other organs including the liver. It is a rare malignancy that is considered to be caused by the formation of gallstones.

Stomach: Stomach cancer, often known as gastric cancer, can occur anywhere in the stomach. Smoking and a diet high in processed or salty foods could be risk factors. Initially, there may be no signs of stomach cancer but symptoms later in life appear in the form of feeling bloated after eating, feeling full after eating modest amounts of food, nausea, heartburn, or indigestion. Surgery, medicine, radiation, and chemotherapy are all alternatives for treatment.

Colon Cancer: Many of you might not be aware but the Colon is the final part of the digestive tract present in the large intestine. This cancer begins non-cancerous in the form of polyps (growth of mushroom-like tissues) which with time progresses into cancer.

Genital Cancer

Ovary Cancer: Ovaries is the organ that is responsible for the production of eggs and the maintenance of female health. Every female is at the risk but women who never got pregnant and who had a family history are at much higher risk. Ovarian Cancer is treatable with the help of surgery or chemotherapy.

Cervical Cancer: There are a significant number of people who are unaware that cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women, especially in India. Cervical Cancer is caused in the most-lower part of the uterus. The causes behind this are HPV infection, multiple sexual partners, smoking, and pre-existing HIV infection. Cervical Cancer can be prevented with the help of safe sexual practices and timely diagnosis.

Uterus Cancer: Endometrial cancer, also known as Uterus cancer or Uterine Cancer, develops in the layer of cells that forms the uterine lining (endometrium). Endometrial cancer is commonly discovered at an early stage due to irregular vaginal bleeding along with symptoms such as symptoms vaginal bleeding after menopause, bleeding between periods, and pelvic discomfort. When endometrial cancer is diagnosed early, surgically removing the uterus frequently cures it. Other forms of cancer, such as uterine sarcoma, can develop in the uterus, although they are far less prevalent than endometrial cancer.

Prostate Cancer: Prostate cancer is more common in men, with high chances of healing if detected early. It begins from the prostate gland which involves secreting prostate-specific antigen, aids urine control, and produces fluid that nourishes and transports sperm. Treatment options are applicable irrespective of the stage of cancer.

Breast Cancer: Breast cancer has become the number one cancer among women in metropolitan cities. 1 in 25-30 urban women are likely to suffer from breast cancer during their lifetime. The risk increases with age with approximately 77% of women being over the age of 50 at the time of diagnosis. Every female is at equal risk of developing breast cancer hence it’s advised not to ignore any kind of lump or abnormality visible in the shape of the breast.

Bladder Cancer: Bladder cancers begin in the cells inside the bladder called urothelial cells. The symptoms include blood in urine, frequent urination, pain during urination, and back pain. It is often diagnosed at an early stage and the chances of curing it are high. But it is recurring in nature and as a safety measure patients are advised for regular follow-up tests for years even if treatment was successful.


Basal cell carcinoma: Basal cells are circular cells that can be seen in the lower epidermis. This kind of cell is responsible for around 80% of all skin malignancies. Basal cell carcinomas are the name given to these types of malignancy. Basal cell carcinoma is most commonly found on the head and neck, although it can occur elsewhere on the skin. It is primarily caused by sun exposure or develops in persons who were exposed to radiation therapy as youngsters. This form of skin cancer normally develops slowly and spreads to other regions of the body only in rare cases.

Squamous cell carcinoma: The majority of the epidermis is made up of squamous cells, which are flat, scale-like cells. These cells cause around 20% of skin malignancies, which are known as squamous cell carcinomas. This cancer is mostly induced by sun exposure, it can appear anywhere on the skin and may It can also appear on the portion of the skin that has been burnt, chemically injured, or exposed to x-rays. Squamous cell carcinoma is most usually detected on the lips, at scar sites, and on the skin outside the mouth, anus, and a woman's vagina. In about 2% to 5% of cases, this cancer spread to other regions of the body.

Merkel cell carcinoma: Merkel cell cancer is a rare, aggressive cancer that grows quickly. It begins in hormone-producing cells close beneath the epidermis, as well as in hair follicles. It is most commonly found in the head and neck area. Merkel cell carcinoma is also known as neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin.

Melanoma: Melanocytes are dispersed cells that exists where the epidermis meets the dermis. These cells create melanin, the pigment that gives skin its colour. Melanoma is the most deadly kind of skin cancer and begins in melanocytes. It accounts for around 1% of all skin malignancies.

Myeloid- Lymphatic Malignancy

Lymphoma: Lymphoma is a kind of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, which is part of the body's germ-fighting mechanism. The lymphatic system consists of lymph nodes (lymph glands), the spleen, the thymus gland, and bone marrow. All of these locations, as well as other organs throughout the body, can be affected by lymphoma.

Leukaemia: Leukaemia is a broad term for blood cell malignancies. The kind of leukaemia is determined by the type of blood cell that develops into cancer and whether it grows rapidly or slowly. It is most common in individuals over the age of 55 and youngsters under the age of 15. The rapid creation of abnormal blood cells in the bone marrow causes this type of cancer. These unusual blood cells have an impact on the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Multiple Myeloma: Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that develops in a type of white blood cell known as a plasma cell. Healthy plasma cells aid in the fight against infections by producing antibodies that detect and destroy bacteria. Cancerous plasma cells grow in the bone marrow and drive out healthy blood cells in multiple myeloma. Instead of producing beneficial antibodies, cancer cells create aberrant proteins that can lead to difficulties.

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